Water

Elephant diggings in dry riverbeds

African elephants (Loxodonta africana) require approximately 40 to 60 gallons (150 to 220 liters) of water daily to maintain their health. They obtain this water from various sources, including open water bodies and wells dug in sandy riverbeds. Additionally, elephants…

How to find freshwater on sandy beaches?

Freshwater seepages occur along drainage lines on beaches, where the water table meets the sea. These seepages are fed by freshwater supplies from inland, and the land beyond the sea is naturally higher than sea level, causing freshwater to flow…

Water dispensers for handwashing

In former Soviet Union- and their satellite states, many citizens had and have water dispensers in their so-called ‘Dachas’ (Russian: дачи). Dachas are typically simple, free-standing houses, either located in city suburbs or in the countryside. And most of them…

Salt intake at seashore survival activities

The salt intake of a human in case of either a real survival situation or when living from the provisions of a shoreline by purpose, is of outmost importance to its health. In case too much salt is consumed, there…

Game trails towards water in African savannas

Larger herbivores in African savannas formed game trails by regular use over eons of years and many, many generations. These trails are connecting water sources, plus feeding- and bedding areas within their home range. And for few of them they…

Double-banded Sandgrouse as water indicator

The Double-banded Sandgrouse (Pterocles bicinctus) is commonly and colloquially called by its abbreviation ‘DBSG’ in Southern Africa. Its main distribution area is the savanna biome and especially Mopani Bushveld. There are three more species of sandgrouses in Southern Africa, all…