Herbivores

Elephant diggings in dry riverbeds

African elephants (Loxodonta africana) require approximately 40 to 60 gallons (150 to 220 liters) of water daily to maintain their health. They obtain this water from various sources, including open water bodies and wells dug in sandy riverbeds. Additionally, elephants…

Why are hippos dangerous on land?

Hippopotami of the species Hippopotamus amphibius (‘Hippos’), are widely distributed over Sub-Saharan African savannah biomes. They were declared a ‘vulnerable’ species, as over the last 10 years the population declined between 7 – 20%. In total, there are about 130,000…

Rumen fluid as an emergency drinking liquid

Rumen fluid is a greenish colored liquid substance with an aromatic and slightly sour smell. This fluid is uniformly distributed in the rumen of antelopes and is mixed with grazing or browsing roughage as well as fermentation gases and bioactive…

The African buffalo is dangerous

Danger of buffaloes is overrated The ‘Cape buffalo’ (Syncerus caffer caffer) as a subspecies of the ‘African buffalo’ (Syncerus caffer) is the typical buffalo species of the Southern African savannah biome. The denomination of ‘African Black Death’ was coined by…

Recipe for disaster – elephant bulls in musth

Musth is a condition of elevated testosterone levels in the blood of elephants (whether African- or Asian elephants). African elephant bulls are coming into their first musth when they are between 15 – 17 years old. The length of musth…

Water from elephant dung

Letaba Ranch, Limpopo province, South Africa; Elephants are a kind of dung producing machines African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the wild are foraging about 150 – 180 kg plant material per day. And they also drink about 350 liters of…

Snares for poaching are a real problem

Many National Parks, Private Game Reserves and Game Farms in Southern Africa are under heavy pressure of snares for poaching. Not only poaching for rhino horn, but also indiscriminate poaching for meat. Rhino horn poaching is mainly organized by internationally…